Today, kids find that the amount of homework they get keeps them from playing sports, taking music lessons or just having fun after school. A recent study by the University of Michigan reports that over the past 16 years, the amount of time the average 3 to 11-yearold kid spends on homework has increased by 50 percent. More and more parents are protesting against so much homework.
'The question is whether schools are holding our children captives with homework,' said Ken Kiewra, professor of educational psychology. He realized one day last year that his sixth-grade son had given up music lessons, the football team and his favourite hobby because he was loaded down with homework. 'I'm home reading the paper and relaxing and this kid who left in the morning before I did is doing two to three hours of work,' remembered Kiewra.
In response, Kiewra wrote an article for the Lincoln newspaper. Although parents responded favourably to his article, the school refused to change their homework policies. Kiewra explained that, from the school's point of view, 'Research confirms that doing homework is better than not doing homework.' He added that pressure for students to perform well on standardized tests has led schools to pile on at home assignments. All work and no play can make boring kids. 'Kids need to play outside and exercise or take art or music classes if they want to,' said Ken Kiewra. 'At the very least, they need fresh air'.
It is estimated that the average man or woman needs between seven-and-a-half and eight hours' sleep a night. Some can manage on a lot less. Baroness Thatcher, for example, was reported to be able to get by on four hours' sleep a night when she was Prime Minister of Britain. Dr Jill Wilkinson, senior lecturer in psychology at Surrey University and co-author of 'Psychology in Counselling and Therapeutic Practice', states that healthy individuals sleeping less than five hours or even as little as two hours in every 24 hours are rare, but represent a sizeable minority.
The latest beliefs are that the main purposes of sleep are to enable the body to rest and replenish, allowing time for repairs to take place and for tissue to be regenerated. One supporting piece of evidence for this rest-and-repair theory is that production of the growth hormone somatotropin, which helps tissue to regenerate, peaks while we are asleep. Lack of sleep, however, can compromise the immune system, muddle thinking, cause depression, promote anxiety and encourage irritability.
Researchers in San Diego deprived a group of men of sleep between 1am and 5am on just one night, and found that levels of their bodies' natural defenses against viral infections had fallen significantly when measured the following morning. 'Sleep is essential for our physical and emotional well-being and there are few aspects of daily living that are not disrupted by the lack of it', says Professor William Regelson of Virginia University, a specialist in insomnia. 'Because it can seriously undermine the functioning of the immune system, sufferers are vulnerable to infection.'
For many people, lack of sleep is rarely a matter of choice. Some have problems getting to sleep, others with staying asleep until the morning. Despite popular belief that sleep is one long event, research shows that, in an average night, there are five stages of sleep and four cycles, during which the sequence of stages is repeated.
In the first light phase, the heart rate and blood pressure go down and the muscles relax. In the next two stages, sleep gets progressively deeper. In stage four, usually reached after an hour, the slumber is so deep that, if awoken, the sleeper would be confused and disorientated. It is in this phase that sleep-walking can occur, with an average episode lasting no more than 15 minutes.
In the fifth stage, the rapid eye movement (REM) stage, the heartbeat quickly gets back to normal levels, brain activity accelerates to daytime heights and above and the eyes move constantly beneath closed lids as if the sleeper is looking at something. During this stage, the body is almost paralysed. This REM phase is also the time when we dream.
Sleeping patterns change with age, which is why many people over 60 develop insomnia. In America, that age group consumes almost half the sleep medication on the market. One theory for the age-related change is that it is due to hormonal changes. The temperature General Training: Reading and Writing rise occurs at daybreak in the young, but at three or four in the morning in the elderly. Age aside, it is estimated that roughly one in three people suffer some kind of sleep disturbance. Causes can be anything from pregnancy and stress to alcohol and heart disease. Smoking is a known handicap to sleep, with one survey showing that ex-smokers got to sleep in 18 minutes rather than their earlier average of 52 minutes.
Apart from self-help therapy such as regular exercise, there are psychological treatments, including relaxation training and therapy aimed at getting rid of pre-sleep worries and anxieties. There is also sleep reduction therapy, where the aim is to improve sleep quality by strictly regulating the time people go to bed and when they get up. Medication is regarded by many as a last resort and often takes the form of sleeping pills, normally benzodiazepines, which are minor tranquillizers.
Professor Regelson advocates the use of melatonin for treating sleep disorders. Melatonin is a naturally secreted hormone, located in the pineal gland deep inside the brain. The main function of the hormone is to control the body's biological clock, so we know when to sleep and when to wake. The gland detects light reaching it through the eye; when there is no light, it secretes the melatonin into the bloodstream, lowering the body temperature and helping to induce sleep. Melatonin pills contain a synthetic version of the hormone and are commonly used for jet lag as well as for sleep disturbance. John Nicholls, sales manager of one of America's largest health food shops, claims that sales of the pill have increased dramatically. He explains that it is sold in capsules, tablets, lozenges and mixed with herbs. It is not effective for all insomniacs, but many users have weaned themselves off sleeping tablets as a result of its application.
Listening 3 bölümden oluşmaktadır. Her bölümde bir ses kaydı dinleyeceksiniz. Part A ve Part B 5'er soru, Part C 10 soru olmak üzere toplam 20 sorudan oluşmaktadır.
Part A soruları aşağıdaki gibidir. Soruları inceledikten sonra ses kaydını dinleyin.
1- The customer’s name is ……………
A) Oleg Markov
B) Olek Markof
C) Olej Markov
2- He is looking for a flat with ………..
A) 3 bedrooms
B) 2 bathrooms
C) 2 bedrooms
3- Which one is correct?
A) 2 people will stay in the house
B) He will stay alone in the house
C) He will stay in the house with his pet
4- He needs a house with a .......
A) balcony because he enjoys the barbeque
B) garage because his friend has a car
C) garden because they like gardening
5- The maximum limit fort he house is …
A) 1,400 Euros weekly
B) 140 Euros weekly
C) 1,400 Euros monthly
Part B soruları aşağıdaki gibidir. Soruları inceledikten sonra ses kaydını dinleyin.
1- They are flying to Vencouver on…….. and coming back from Calgary on …………
A) July, 12th/ July, 20th
B) July, 20th/ July, 28th
C) June, 20th/ July 12th
2- How much will the fight cost per person in total?
A) 740 Pounds
B) 780 Pounds
C) 870 Pounds
3- Metroplolitan Hotel ………
A) 3 star hotel, including breakfast and dinner
B) 4 star hotel , all inclusive
C) 4 star hotel, including breakfast
4- Tick the FIRST place they will visit
A- Lake Louise
B- Lake Michigan
C- Calgary Tower
D- Jasper National Museum
E- Emerald Mountain Resort
5- Tick the the SECOND place they will visit
A. Lake Louise
B. Lake Michigan
C. Calgary Tower
D. Jasper National Museum
E. Emerald Mountain Resort
Part C soruları aşağıdaki gibidir. Soruları inceledikten sonra ses kaydını dinleyin.
l. What do the speakers mainly discuss?
A)Admissions standards at the University of Michigan.
B)The use of standardized tests for college admissions.
C)The TOEFL (Test of English as a Foreign Language.
D) Evaluation without standardized tests.
2. What is Paul's opinion about the TOEFL and the Michigan Test?
A) He believes that the tests are good.
B)He believes that the required test cores are too low.
C) He believes that they are more important than academic preparation.
D) He believes that the tests should not be used.
3. What does Sally say about the admissions officers?
A) They don't always use the TOEFL and the Michigan Test scores correctly.
B) They look at transcripts instead of scores.
C)They should insist on a rigid cut-off score.
D) They are looking for an appropriate alternative.
4. How does the professor handle the disagreement?
A)He agrees with Sally.
B) He restates both opinions.
C)He asks the class to vote.
D) He disagrees with both students.
5. Where did this discussion most probably take place?
A) In a college classroom.
B) At the Office of International Services.
C)In the cafeteria.
D) At a party.
6. What do the speakers mainly discuss?
A. Making friends in a foreign country.
B. Spanish and French.
C. Foreign TV, radio, and other media.
D. Learning a foreign language.
7. Why does Professor Baker begin the discussion by calling on Betty?
A. Because she is not a shy person.
B. Because she studied languages in high school.
C. Because she knows several languages.
D. Because she agrees with him.
8. What helped Betty most in learning Spanish?
A. The language laboratory.
B. Travel in other countries.
C. Studying in high school.
D. Going to movies and watching TV.
9. What is Professor Baker's opinion?
A. He believes that it is a good idea to do all of the things that Betty and Bill suggested.
B. He agrees with Betty's idea for learning languages.
C. He believes that going to class is the best way to learn.
D. He believes that it is ideal to live in a country where the language is spoken.
10. How can we best describe Professor Baker?
A. He is not very knowledgeable.
B. He is respectful of his students.
C. He has a very formal manner in class.
D. He has traveled extensively.
Write a paragpraph about the following topic.
You will have 25 minutes for this task. Use minimum 100 words
Describe a place that you enjoy going.
Give details :
Where this place is
What you do there
Explain why this place is different and special for you